As outlined in section 2, evaluating the effectiveness of youth work education and training is challenging. Education and training is only one of multiple factors which will affect youth work practice (assuming one wanted to judge theefficacy of education and training in terms of effects upon youth work practice). Nevertheless, there is encouraging evidence from Ireland and Wales in particular, that professionalizatio  of youth work, through reform and regulation of education and training can improve youth work practice. Equally, the experience of Wales highlights the needs to continually refresh education and training to ensure it keeps pace with changes in youth work practice and the social-political; material-economic and cultural-discursive contexts it works in. The experience of Estonia highlights the challenges of professionalizing (and training and/or accrediting the existing skills of) the whole workforce when new standards are introduced, a challenge North Macedonia is also likely to face. These challenges suggests that quality assurance of youth work education and training provision, while valuable, is not in itself sufficient to ensure quality and effectiveness and should be complemented by evaluation and quality assurance of youth work practice.